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[转帖]Tutorial of Hulusi & Bawu

王厚臣《葫芦丝巴乌考级曲目精选》1到10级
集王厚臣老师最新创作的新曲中,还有伴奏和相应的示范,两个碟
本书因为受葫芦丝爱好者喜爱,所以这是第三版了


李春华教学精品书《葫芦情》春粉必备
全收录李春华老师的原创作品,演奏方法,曲目创作背景等等,
签名收藏必备,含十几首正版示范和相应的伴奏碟两张


张笑编著《张笑葫芦丝教程》第二版【含CD】
本书由张笑老师编著,并给全书的练习曲配上了相应的伴奏方便爱
好者从零开始学习,而且还有很多张笑老师的一些合奏曲。


乔志忱《葫芦丝的新技法和特殊指法》
乔志忱老师的作品,也即《葫芦丝高手之路》从零学起到精通,是
乔志忱老师毕生的作品,受到广大葫芦丝爱好者好评的书!


 

[转帖]Tutorial of Hulusi & Bawu

偶遇一外国朋友,特别钟情于中国音乐及乐器,但苦于在买不到中文的指导书,很是苦恼……于是将这本《葫芦丝、巴乌实用教程》 李春华 编著 的书交给我,希望我能够 do a favor. 我翻翻此书,好像没多少页纸,回答到:“Let me try". 真正做时才知道自己的英语和音乐知识实在是匮乏的可以。无论如何,咱不能丢咱中国人的脸,还是试着译出最简单的意思吧。请大家多多指教。 《葫芦丝 巴乌实用教程》 Practical tutorial of Hulusi & Bawu 李春华 编著 by Chunhua Li 葫芦丝 巴乌考级曲目精选 choice songs of Hulusi and Bawu 一级 first class 金孔雀轻轻跳 gold peacock jump slightly 婚誓 marry oath 打水姑娘 water girl 马兰花开 malan flower 摇篮曲 cradlesongs 小夜曲 serenade 望春风 pring breeze 友谊地久天长 friendship forever 康定情歌 Kangting madrigal 映山红 rhododendra 二级 second class 有一个美丽的地方 a beautiful place 人们向往的地方 a good place you want go 会唱歌的金葫芦 gold calabash is capable of singing song 藏族弦子 Tibetan strings(a kind of musical instrument) 新疆舞曲 Sinkiang/Xinjiang dance 三级 third class 美丽的金孔雀 beautiful gload peacock 湖边的孔雀 peacock beside the lake 版纳之夜 night of Xishuangbanna(placename of Chinese Yunan) 祝酒歌 toast song 月光下的凤尾竹 fernleaf hedge bamboo in the moon 紫竹调 purple bamboo song 四级 fourth class 月夜 moon night 幸福的日子 happy life 月映竹楼 bamboo building be bathed in moon 景颇山 Jinpo hill 瑞丽美 Ruili beauty 晚霞 afterglow 五级 fifth class 竹林深处 the depth of bamboo forest 竹楼情歌 bamboo building ballad 多情的巴乌 amorous Bawu 彝乡小调 countryside canzonet of Yi nationality 侗乡之夜 the night of Dong nationality countryside 小卜少 nipper 孔雀姑娘 peacock girl 六级 sixth class 傣乡情歌 ballad of Dai nationality 拉祜情 lahu passion (Lagu is minority dialect, I can’t catch on it ) 渔歌 fisherman's song 节日的德昂山 De’ang hill in the festival 月夜思乡 miss hometown in the moon night 哈尼情歌 ballad of Hali nationality 七级 seventh class 芦萧情 Luxiao passion 欢乐的嘎光 happy gaguang(Gaguang is minority dialect, I can’t catch on it) 阿昌情深 deep love with Achang 梦回故乡 dream to go back to hometown 春到草原 come to Greenland in the spring 八级 eighth class 欢乐的泼水节 convivial Water-splashing Fastival 金色的孔雀 gold peacock 迷人的葫芦萧 attractive Hulusi 牧歌 pastoral 赶摆 Gangbai (Gangbai is minority dialect, I can’t catch on it) 2005-5-11 15:54:00laura99 Introduction The Hulusi (which means “gourd silk”, referring to the instrument’s silky tone) or Huluxiao(translating roughly as “gourd vertical flute”)is an end-blown free reed pipe with gourd windchest .Single pipe specimens are rare, most Hulusi having a melody pipe and at least one drone pipe. Hulusi has a melody pipe and two shorter drone pipes, although this one has only a single drone pipe that actually sounds, the other being dummy. The Hulusi is most commonly associated with the Dai minority(who call it Bilangdao),but it is also found amongst other minorith groups of Southern China such as the Achang, Jingpo and Wa. Each pipe has a triangular free reed made of brass and the fingering of the melody pipe is that same as that of the Bawu.The two-pipe instrument show above is in the key of G and plays the scale D E F# G A B D E with the drone pipe playing a low D. The three pipe instrument shown above is pitched in C and plays the scale G A B C D E G A, with the drone pipe playing a high E: In both instruments, the drone can be "switched off" by plugging the end of the pipe and like the bawu, additional melodic pitches can be played by cross-fingering and half-holing. As with many traditional instruments of the Chinese ethnic minorities, "improved" versions have been produced, with increased melodic range and brass, plastic or ceramic replacements for the gourd. So-called double hulusi have also been developed, with two melody pipes tuned a fourth apart, capable of polyphonic playing. The bawu is a side-blown reedpipe found in Southern China, played by the Dai, Hani, Miao, Yi and other minorities. When in use it resembles a typical side-blown bamboo flute, but it has a triangular free reed made from brass set into the side of the pipe, surrounded by a bone mouthpiece: This is a fairly traditional model, having a thumb hole, six finger holes, plus a tuning hole and a range of just over an octave. Unlike the ala and ding tac ta, the pipe is closed at one end. It is made from two sections of bamboo and its overall tuning can be varied by adjusting the joint between the two pieces. This is a key of G instrument and plays the scale D E F# G A B D E: Additional pitches can be played by cross-fingering and/or half-holing and a G instrument would typically also be played in the keys of D, C and sometimes Bb. In recent years, the rich, mellow tone of the bawu has become a favorite with composers of film soundtracks (the bawu was strongly featured in the score to "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon") and many small Chinese music ensembles now feature a bawu player. "Improved" bawu have appeared over the last few decades, with increased range, plastic construction, finger keys, etc. Additional pitches can be played by cross-fingering and/or half-holing and a G instrument would typically also be played in the keys of D, C and sometimes Bb. In recent years, the rich, mellow tone of the bawu has become a favorite with composers of film soundtracks (the bawu was strongly featured in the score to "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon") and many small Chinese music ensembles now feature a bawu player. "Improved" bawu have appeared over the last few decades, with increased range, plastic construction, finger keys, etc. 第一单元 基础知识elementary knowledge 一、 葫芦丝、巴乌简介Introduction 葫芦丝又称葫芦萧,傣语称之为筚南母倒(南母倒即葫芦之意)。流行于滇西德宏、保山、瑞丽等傣族地区,在阿昌族、布朗族、德昂族中也较为流行。葫芦丝的起源可追溯到先秦时代,民间流传着许多关于葫芦丝起源的动人传说,如傣族民间就流传着这样一个故事:很久以前,一次山洪暴发,一位傣家小卜冒抱起一个大葫芦,闯过惊涛骇浪,救出了自己的心上人,他忠贞不渝的爱情感动了佛祖,佛祖把竹管插入金葫芦,送给勇敢的小卜冒,小卜冒捧起金葫芦,吹出了美妙的乐声。顿时,风平浪静,鲜花盛开,孔雀开屏,祝愿这对情侣吉祥幸福。从此葫芦丝在傣族人家世代相传。 傣族人民多才多艺,能歌善舞。在节日里,不论是在江中划龙舟或是在江边放高升,还是在广场上赶摆,或是在竹楼里饮酒,都伴随着傣族人动人的歌声。赞哈(民间歌手)在葫芦丝的伴奏下唱着古老的传说和美丽的神话,唱着旧社会的困难和新社会的幸福。 葫芦丝的构造较特殊,所用材料取自天然,纯手工完成制作过程。它由葫芦、主管、簧片、附管组成,主管开有七个音孔,音域为3 5 6 7 1 2 3 5 6,附管持续发一个音。葫芦丝发音优美、亲切,略带鼻音,擅于表示温柔细腻的感情,给人以含蓄朦胧的美感。因为它发出的声音有如抖动丝绸那样飘逸、轻柔,所以称它为葫芦丝. 巴乌在云南哈尼族、彝族等少数民族中普遍流行的音簧管乐器,用嘴包着吹口横吹。它和葫芦丝有着共同的源泉,其发音原理相同,音域相同,演奏方法也一样,音色也很相似,只是巴乌的音色较厚实,所以有“会吹葫芦丝就会吹巴乌”的说法,因此称他们为姊妹乐器。 Hulusi has another name of Huluxiao, the dialect of Dai minority intituled Bilangdao(Bilangdao means Calabash). It has been enjoying general popularity in Yunan Dehong minority, Baoshan minority , Ruili minority etc and is also very popular in Achang minorith , Buna minority and De’ang minority. Hulusi’s original can trace back to the Qing dynasty of old China while there were many affecting folklores concerning Hulusi. take an example, there was a story be came down in Dai minority , long long ago, the flood broke out, a Dai youth carried a big calabash and crossed a situation full of danger terrifying waves, and then brought off his Miss right. As this constancy of love attitude affected the God, and at that moment a bamboo tube be inserted in the gold calabash by God and be present to this brave youth. Finally, he hold it in both hand ,the grace music came out . At once, there are very calm and flowers bloom , peacocks spread their tail to display its fine feathers. Dai people are versatile, be good at singing and dancing. In the festival, wherever the grace singing of Dai were existed. HaZan(folk singer) especially like to sang song accompany by Hulusi. Hulusi’s constitution are unique, used the natural material, made by hand. It is consis of calabash, main tube, reed and sub-tube.. And the main tube has seven sound hole, diapason are 3 5 6 7 1 2 3 5 6, sub-tube just emit one sound sostenuto. The sound character of Hulusi are grace, amiable, a little bit rhonchus , be good at expressing soft and exquisite emotion, be covered with blear and beautiful feeling. Bawu is very popular pipe instrument in Yuanan Hali, Yi nationality etc. The perform manner is cover the hole by moth and blow. It’s pronunciation theory ,diapason, musical performance and tamber are seem with Hulusi, a difference is Bawu’s tamber are more deeper than it. There were a ideal is that you can perform Hulusi if you can perform Bawu, so they have been called sister instrument. Page 3 三、 按孔方法及部位 press way and place 四、 演奏姿势 performance pose 五、 气息的运用 breath application 吹奏葫芦丝、巴乌的气息与竹笛、竖笛的气息截然不同。竹笛、竖笛吹奏低音时气流要轻缓,而吹奏葫芦丝、巴乌的低音(低音“3”音出外)气流要强;竹笛、竖笛吹奏高音时气流要强,而葫芦丝、巴乌的高音只能缓吹,如果用气过猛可能导致无乐音或损坏簧片。同学们最好在老师的指导下联系。 There are a big difference between Hulusi, Bawu and bamboo flute , clarinet of breath application. Bamboo flute and clarinet need be blow with smooth steam when bourdon play, on the contrary, for Hulusi and Bawu(expect of bourdon “3”), that is, Hulusi & Bawu need be blow with strong steam when bourdon play. Bamboo flute & clarinet need be blow with strong steam when alt play, on the contrary, for Hulusi &Bawu,that is ,Hulusi & Bawu need be blow with smooth steam when alt play. Otherwise, they will be damage. May as well, on the teacher’s direction, to play Hulusi and Bawu. 2005-6-27 16:22:00laura99
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第二单元 入门练习 base exercise 一、“5”音的练习(指法如图) exercise for tone “5”(fingering as following picture) 演奏提示 performance hint ○1全按作5即筒音为5,开第三孔为1,这是葫芦丝、巴乌最易掌握也是用得最多的吹奏指法。○2“T”为单吐符号,表示此音要吐奏,可先用“tu”来练唱,吹奏时要像唱“tu” 来练唱,吹奏时要像唱“tu”那样去吹,避免用“hu”去吹。音头需用吐音吹奏。○3长音练习是葫芦丝、巴乌演奏十分重要的练习,注意吸气时要深一些,保证有充足的气量完成长音的吹奏。○4. “V”为换气符号,吹到“V”处要换一口气,初学时要养成良好的换气习惯。 ○1To press 5 for total hole, that is drum sound 5, and then open the third hole for 1(do), which is the most elementary and common use of Hulusi & Bawu performance ○2 ‘T’ is the signal spit(T) mark and denotes this tone should be spit playing, it can be exercise as “to” at first, and avoid to play as “hu”. Tone head should play by T。○3It is very important for long sound exercise of Hulusi & Bawu, pay attention to take a heavy breath so that the enough air can be fulfill long sound performance.. ○4 ‘V’ is the mark of air changing, it should be changed an air when play ‘V’.The good habit should be became in the beginning of air changing. 演奏提示 performance hint 每个音均用吐音吹奏。吐音可将同度音分开。当同学吹完了一个音以后,随之会出现怪音“咕”音,严重影响了吹奏效果。怎样才能避免呢?当你吹完一个音后,将嘴唇快速张开或快速将吹嘴拔出口,即可避免,不过这需要通过练习才能做到。 Every tone should be play with T(吐音), it can part the unisonous sound. The ‘gu’will come down after a tone come out, which affect the performance severely. And then, how can it be avoided? Please open your mouth or give up the blast gun quickly after the first tone come out , but, it need to be exercised more. Page 5 乐理小知识 music knowledge 一、 音的长短和音符(以“5”为例)tone length and note 全音符 四拍 5 - - - semibreve 二分音符 两拍 5 - halfnote 四分音符 一拍 5 quarter note 八分音符 半拍 5 eight note 十六分音符 1/4 拍 5 sixteenth note 二、拍号 Beat No. 表示拍子的记号,叫做拍号。一般标记在乐谱的左上方。例如:2/4、 3/8、2/2 。拍号中分子表示每小节的拍数;分母表示以某种音符号为一拍。如: What mark of beat we called beat No, which usually be attached on the top left part of score, for instance, 2/4, 3/8, 2/2 。The numerator of beat number denote number of each section, denominator denote one beat of some note. 2 每小节2拍 two beat of every section 4 每四分音符为一拍 one beat every quarter note 3 每小节3拍 three beat of every section 8 每八分音符为一拍 one beat of every eight note 2 每小节2拍 two beat of every section 4 每二分音符为一拍 one beat of halfnote 常用拍号 common beat No. 二分之二拍 2/2 2/2 beat 四分子二拍 2/4 2/4 beat 四分之三拍 3/4 3/4 beat 四分之四拍 4/4 4/4 beat 八分之三拍 3/8 3/8 beat 八分之六拍 6/8 6/8 beat 八分之十二拍 12/8 12/8 beat 三、休止符rest 表示声音停顿的符号,叫休止符,用“0”来表示 休止符和音符一样可分为:全休止符,二分休止符,四分休止符,八分休止符和十六分休止符。 The rest denote sound break down, it be called rest and shown as ‘0’ in the music book. Rest can be disport as note full-rest, half-rest quarter rest, eight rest and sixteen rest. Page 7 乐理小知识(二)knowledge of music 一、 附点音( .)符 dotted note 带有附点的音符叫附点音符,写在音符右边的小原点“.”叫附点,附点的作用是将原音符的时值延长一半。常用的附点音符有: The note be dotted is called dotted note, which showed by small ball point ‘ .’, its fuction is pronglong half note of original note .The common dotted no as followings 附点四分音符 quarter note of dotted note 附点八分音符 eight note of dotted note 附点十六分音符 sixteen note of dotted note 二、小节线、小节、终止线 section line, section, end line 小节 section 小节 section 小节section 小节线 secion line 小节线 section line 小节线 section line 终止线 end line Hulusi and Bawu. 气息的运用breath application 气息的运用,在所有吹奏乐器中都显得尤为重要,特别是在葫芦丝、巴乌中气息的控制,力度的分配,是演奏好葫芦丝、巴乌的重要环节,主要讲一讲吹奏音阶时的气息运用。葫芦丝、巴乌的运气和其它吹奏乐器有明显的差别,一般的吹奏乐器当演奏到高音都需要一定的力度和强度,音越高力度要越强,像对于低音的演奏要更用力,而葫芦丝、巴乌恰恰相反,越是高音气流就越弱,特别时高音5和6的吹奏,只需较缓的气流即可。反之则会导致高音损坏,加油气流声或根本就没有乐声,故初学者演奏高音时要特别注意气流一定要清缓。 Breath application is significant for all wind instruments, especially for Hulusi and Bawu, and the dynamic distribution is the key for Hulusi and Bawu performance。The breath application of play music scale will be give a lecture for details. There are distinct difference between Hulusi ,Bawu and other instruments of breath application. Popular wind instrument need a certain dynamics and intension when alt play, that is, the more alt, the more strong breath be support. But it is opposite for Hulusi and Bawu, its character is , the more alt, the more weak breath be support,especially for alt 5 and 6. whereas, it can occur alt loss , the tone company with breath sound or no musical sound. 5 6 7 1( 。) 2( 。) 3( 。) 5( 。) 6( 。) 我们可以根据下图来进行气息力度的分配: 强 弱 为什么葫芦丝、巴乌的气息运用会如此特殊,我从发音簧片的勾着上来讲可能会更容易理解,请同学们看一看这是放大后的葫芦丝、巴乌的心脏部件——簧片模型: 它的振动是靠中间像鸟的舌头这一片上下振动而产生音波,它的特点是:头部到根部由尖逐渐变宽,头部较尖,根部较宽,我们这样理解:根部的振动是决定低音的发音, 因为根部较宽故在振动时气流需要加强一些;尖部的振动是决定高音的发音,因为头部较尖细,故在振动是无需太强的气流. According to the following drawing , it can be made a distribution. Why the breath application of Hulusi and Bawu is so especial. The explanation of voice reed can help to understand. Now, let’s look at the key part of Hulusi and Bawu ,which be magnified and is a reed model . The libration come into being by the middle part that like the bird tongue, which librate and sound wave come into being. Its character is that the part ——from head to end broaden step by step, the head is narrow and the end is wider than the head. So, we can catch on that the end libration decide the bass pronunciation for the end is wider and it need more strong air while it librate, the libration of acuate part decide the high pronuciation for the acuate part is acuate and it needn’t more strong air while it librate. 2005-6-27 16:27:00motoxu 难啊~~~ 2005-6-27 16:41:00laura99 演奏必读(二) performance information “咕”音的避免 ‘gu’ avoiding 葫芦丝、巴乌的发音非常特别,如气息较弱发出的音从头到尾只有一个“咕”音,初学者一般都会发出这种音,我们可以试着慢慢的加力音即变为正常,也就是说葫芦丝、巴乌的演奏气息需要一定的强度,特别是低音区的演奏力度要更强一些,发出的音才正常。 The voice of Hulusi and Bawu is very especial, such as the ‘gu’ will come down if the weak breath be blowed. The ‘gu’ will come down in the beginning of Hulusi and Bawu study, as to this condition, we can increase the breath and then it can became normal. The mentioned above make out that the performance of Hulusi and Bawu need a certain strong breath to support , especially for the bourdon. 下面讲一下怎样才能吹出一个正常的音。应该采用什么方法,大多初学者当能吹出正常的音后都会遇到这样两个问题,一音头总是“咕”音先发出接着才发出正常音,二是当吹完一个音后,音尾总是会带出一个“咕”音,严重的影响了吹奏效果,现在讲一下怎样避免音头和音尾的“咕”音。首先解决音头的“咕”声,大多初学者均用“呼”来吹奏音头,我们可以体会一下,一口气“呼”出来,气头是软的,气流很弱,发出的音便是“咕”声,尔后随着气流力度的增加,发音才正常。其实解决方法很简单,只要大家用“吐”开口即可避免,为什么“吐”音可以避免呢?因为我们发“吐”音是其实是一个暴发性的动作,大家可以体会一下,我们知道,爆发肯定带有一定的力度和强度,使气流一出来就达到了发正常音所需的力度,可使乐器发出正常音。所以只要我们用“吐”音开头,音头便清爽干净。 As follows, first, what how to blow a normal tone will be explained. On the one hand, the normal tone will come down before the ‘gu’ came out in the beginning. On the other hand, the ‘gu’ will come down after a tone complete, and it has affected the performance effect. second, as to how to avoid the ‘gu’ of the tone head and tone ending, we should shot the ‘gu’ of the tone head, through many abecedarian use ‘hu’ to play tone head so that we can catch on that, the breath head is soft and weak, and the ‘gu’ is come out. Thereafter, the normal tone came normal along with the air strength increase. The resolvent is to play ‘to’. Because the action of playing ‘to’ is fulminating , it has a certain dynamics and intensity. The intensity of normal pronunciation be reached when the air come down. , and the tone head is clear . 其次解决的是音尾的“咕”声,当吹完一个音后,随之便会出现“咕”声,听起来很不舒服,为什么会出现这个“咕”声呢?因为当你吹完一个音后,其实口腔里还有余气,这部分余气释放时,几乎没有力度和强度,故发出的音便是“咕”声,我们要避免它,只有吹完后,快速的把嘴唇微微张开,把气流断掉,余气依然保留在口腔里,便可比卖弄余音“咕”的出现。 The second problem is ‘gu’ shooting, the ‘gu’ will come down after a sound come out, it is too harsh for ear. The causation is the remanent air be stayed in the oral cavity, there are hardly dynamics and intensity when the remanent air release. So that the ‘gu’ come down. The resolvent is that open you mouth a litter and cut off the airflow after a sound be blew out.Though the remanent air still stayed in mouth , it is good than the ‘gu’ come down. Page 13 演奏必读(三)performance information 按孔部位及手形 part of press hole and hand shape 1. 按孔部位 part of press hole 要吹出一个正常的音,有一点是必需做到的,凡要求关闭的音孔是不能漏气的,一丝都不能漏,否则,发出的音则不准确,让人感觉刺耳不实在。为了保证所按音孔不漏气,我们采用指肚按孔,避免指尖和指腰按孔,因为指肚面积相对指尖和指腰要宽一些,其次指肚按孔手形美观,并便于演奏,故我们在按孔时采用指肚按孔。 The point is very important for a normal tone , which is that you should keep breath of your sound hole, otherwise, the sound you blow is not exact and it was harsh for audience. As to ensure the sound hole close, we should use ball of the fingers to press and avoid the head of fingers and the middle part of the fingers for the one reason of that the ball of the finger is broader than others, another reason is the hand shape is perfect and performance convenience if you press sound hole by ball of fingers 2. 手形 hand shape 为了保证手形美观便于演奏,对手形的要求尤为重要,应避免这几种姿势;倒腕式、机翼式、孔雀开屏式。 演奏时两个食指不要依附在附管上,这样会影响美观和演奏的技巧,整个手形应做到“通”、“松”、“空”。 双手的小指应用是决定手形的重要因素,两个小指所起作用有三个: Assured the perfect hand shape and performance convenience, please pay attention to your correct fingering. Please don’t put two index finger on the vice tube for keep the perfect performance pose and good performance habit, in which the principle is that hand shape should be flowing, loose and hollow. The litter finger is key element of hand shape decision, which function as follows, ○1起到固定作用,初学者大多依靠食指来固定葫芦丝,便形成了以上讲的孔雀开屏式。当采用小指固定,可使两个食指解放,手形美观。 The first function is firmness. Many abecedarian moored the Hulusi by index finger so that the Hand shape will too open . The hand shape will be grace and Hulusi handing will be very firm if you hand it by litter finger. ○2起到定位作用,有的同学演奏完下三音孔时,下手小指抬起后,下手指会移位,待演奏到下三音孔时就会找不到音孔,有了小指的定位便可避免以上情况。 The second function is orientation. Many student used to uplift their litter finger of the nether hand that placed on Hulusi after the third hole play, and then they can’t find the sound hole, if the case like that , the litter finger orientation will be work out. ○3手形美观,小指的运用避免孔雀开屏式,在外形上达到美观。 初学者小指的应用不容忽视,其运用规律为:当用到下三指应自然抬起,否则会使下三指的演奏不大灵活,当不用下三指应放到主管上,上手指也同样如此,待熟练后,习惯成自然,小指的应用就灵活了,在较快的乐曲演奏中,小指应用可不受此限制,否则会故此失彼,影响旋律的流畅。 The third function is grace hand shape or perfect performance pose. The application of litter finger should be attached importance, the principle is as follows., the third finger of the nether hand that placed on Hulusi should lift naturally, otherwise it will be clumsy, and then it will be placed on the main tube when it is not work. The third finger of the upper hand that placed on Hulusi should do like the above. After it become the habit and proficient, litter finger application will be flexible. But litter finger will be free of this principle in the fast music performance, otherwise , it will be effect the last from the former and the cantus will be not fluent. 2005-6-27 16:42:00laura99
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第三单元 Unit three 如何美化音色,使吹出来的乐声优美动听,音准达标,音色、音量要有变化,吹奏时连音与断音清晰富裕表现力,其关键在于吹奏时的气息控制,平时多练长音、连音、强弱变化音。在葫芦丝、巴乌的演奏中气息的运用,完全决定着吹奏效果,同学门必须在气息的练习上多下功夫。 How to get the perfect tamber , fair-sounding sounds, correct and standard sound . The key is to control breath correctly, which decided the performance effect, so that the more exercise of it is necessary. 人们通过呼吸的方法有三种,即:胸式呼吸法、腹式呼吸法、胸腹联合式呼吸法。由于葫芦丝、巴乌采的是胸腹联合式呼吸法,在换气时用口鼻同时吸气以口为主,呼出时要控制住气息,应用胸肌、腹肌和横隔膜的控制能力,使气流能够均匀,呼吸方法不要违反正常呼吸规律,否则会影响效果,也不利于身体健康。一般初学者一口气能吹奏10-15秒,通过练习后,一口气可吹奏20-30秒。 There are three breath ways, which is chest breath, abdominal breath, combination breath of chest and abdomen. The Hulusi and Bawu adopt the combination breath of chest and abdomen and change air by month and nose, in which the mouth is the main breath apparatus, breath control by chest muscle, abdominal muscle and diaphragm muscle while breathe out air on condition that the air can even emit. Assured the breath way should be confirmed with the breath principle, the perfect performance effect will be affect and it is deleterious for your health. The abecedarian can blow 10-15 second usually, they can blow 20-30 second after exercise more. 为了掌握正确的气息方法,可作以下两种练习: In order that we master correct breath, please do the following exercise. 1. 慢吸慢呼:slow inspiration and slow expiration 深深地吸一口气,吹一个长音,吸气时要气吸足而不出声,呼气时要求均匀、平稳,时间长而不费力。 Take an air deeply ,and then the long sounds come out. So please pay attention to take the enough air and expire equally , reposefully, fast and easily. 2. 快吸慢呼 fast inspiration and slow expiration 这是演奏葫芦丝、巴乌时运用最多的呼吸方法,吸气时间越短越好,因为在乐曲进行中允许吸气的时间是很短的,特别是在快板演奏中的换气。 The most way of Hulusi and Bawu inspiration is fast inspiration and slow expiration. The shorter air be inspire , the more advantage be exist for performance, because permit of inspiration in the playing is very short, especially for the fast music. 一、长音练习 exercise of long sound Page 35 四、循环换气circular air changing 我国的唢呐、笛子等几种吹奏乐器都有连续不断地吹奏一个很长的乐音或一个完整的乐句甚至一首乐曲的情形,所运用的技巧就称为“循环换气”。葫芦丝、巴乌的演奏也有循环换气技法。要使乐音连绵不断地持续下去,吹奏者必须把气流源源不断地吹到吹嘴内,但由于人的肺活量是,要用这少量的气使乐音持续很长的时间,一定要在吹奏的同时把气吸入肺内。在人的生理习惯上呼与吸是对立的。因此,我们必须从口腔中想办法。人的口腔能储存一定的气量,可用这一部分气来推动音乐。当口腔中的气流送出去时,迅速从鼻孔吸气入肺,然后再把吸入的气继续吹出,循环反复使气流连续不断,并有一定的强度。但循环换气有一定的难度,非一日之功,要通过艰苦的练习,才能很好地掌握这一技巧。 The Chinese trumpet and flute play by a long and nonstop sound to complete a very long sound or an integrated music, the skill be used is circular air changing. It is also applicable for Hulusi and Bawu. Executant have to breath the air nonstop for keep the music continuously, but human vital capacity is limited, and for keep the nonstop music , the air should be inspire to the lung when you play. Otherwise, the inspiration and expiration is opposite for human physiological habit . So, we should find the answer from oral cavity because it has some space to store and the air be stored in it can work out music. The way is that take an air fast from nose and send it to lung when the air in the oral cavity be sent out, and then blow up the air you just took. Please repeat the above step and exercise more. 2005-6-27 16:43:00laura99 第四单元 手指技巧练习 fingers skill exercise 葫芦丝、巴乌的手指技巧内容非常丰富,由于演奏中手指技巧的加入使得乐曲更富表现力,更让人陶醉,故手指技巧的练习尤其为重要,在葫芦丝、巴乌演奏中常用的手指技巧有虚指颤音、倚音、打音、颤音、滑音及转调指法。 手指的运用是决定葫芦丝、巴乌吹奏水平及演奏效果的重要因素,一首乐曲效果有一半决定于手指技巧,一半决定于气息运用,二者的有机结合,再加上舌头的灵活运用,在葫芦丝和巴乌才能演奏好。特别是滑音、颤音、虚指颤音的应用较为广泛,而且是影响演奏效果的重要因素,练习时应着重练习。 The finger skill of Hulusi and Bawu is very plentiful, and it is the key point of Hulusi and Bawu performance, in which, several finger skills is virtual fingering tremolo, appgyiature, 打音,tremolo, portamento and modulation fingering. Combination of Fingering and breath control and tongue application are key element of Hulusi and Bawu performance , especially for portamento, tremolo, virtual fingering tremolo application, which be used widely. Page 47 六、虚指颤音和腹颤音练习 virtual fingering and abdominal tremolo 一、 虚指颤音virtual fingering tremolo 虚指颤音在葫芦思演奏技巧中最具傣族明间风格,虚指颤音也叫隔孔打音,还叫做指颤音,它不同于一般正常的颤音,它在本音位置的下二孔,平稳扇动,使其产生似弦乐揉弦时的效果;以全按作5为例,当吹奏3时用无名指扇动1音孔,吹奏2时用食指扇动7音孔。但要注意不是每个音都用虚指颤音,而是要根据乐曲的风格而采用。在乐曲中通常用 “o” 表示虚指颤音。 Virtual fingering tremolo is the typical music style of Dai minority , it has been called interval打音 and finger tremolo and is different with the normal tremolo for it located below the lower second hole. It voiced smoothly and the dulcet singing come out. In the case of to press total 5 voice, you should press do hole when mi playing, press 7 hole when 2 playing. Please pay attention to that not all the tone use virtual fingering tremolo, which should cater to the music style. “o” denote the virtual fingering tremolo in the music. 二、腹颤音 Abdominal tremolo 腹颤音有的也称气颤音,因为它是靠气息的有规律的强弱交替而形成的水纹般的音波,是依靠腹肌和横隔膜有弹性的颤动而获得的。在乐曲中通常用“———”表示腹颤音。 Abdominal tremolo has been called another name of air tremolo for it produce sound wave by alternation rule of strong air and weak air, the vibration of abdominal muscle and diaphragm. It be showed “———”in the music book. Page51 第五单元 UNIT 5 舌头好像一个活塞,可以起阻碍气流的作用。舌头堵住吹口就发生断音现象,舌头离开吹口声音就继续发出,我们吹奏一般乐曲时,常用连音和断音两种方法。吐音就是解决断音的方法,吐音的发音方法,即在吹之前将舌头顶住上牙床,在吹完时舌头一接触吹口附近的位置马上向里缩回,使气流吹出,达到断音效果。 The tongue like a piston, which is founction of block air . There is a phenomenon of tone break when the blast gun be plugged and will resume after tongue leave. We usually play music with liaison and non-liaison. T (吐音) is the key resolvent of non-liaison achievement, the way is that using you tongue to hold the teethridge before you begin performance, and then draw back fast after blowing finish, give out the air and the sound be broke off. 吐音分为单吐、双吐和三吐。T be divided to T, TK,TTK. 1. 单吐T 单吐可以分短吐和连吐(软吐),短吐符号为“ ”(标记在音上方),其特点是发音短促而有力,要求缩短原音符的是时值。如1 2 应奏成1020,演奏时舌吐动作要有弹性,不能绵。而连吐时舌头的动作较之短吐要轻微,要求把音清楚地送出,并保持原音符地时值,气流似断非断,单吐也用“T”来标识。 T can be divided to Short T and Link T, short mark be denote as “ ”in the above of sound , which characteristic is short and strong pronunciation and shorten the chronaxy of original note. For example, 1 2 shoud be play as 1020. Tongue action should be flexible ,strong and short, slight. Required to send sounds clear and keep the chronaxy of original note, so the airflow is seems break but it is linked。 2. 双吐 TK 双吐是用来完成连续快速分奏地技巧,演奏方法是在单吐地基础上加上一个“苦”字,即“吐苦”。利用舌尖和舌跟的练习动作使音快速断开,双吐一般用“TK”表示,如: 5(T)5(K)5(T)5(K). TK can help to finish intersected performance that is non-stop and fast, the way is to add ‘ku’ on the basis of T, that is to spit “ku”, cut fast by you tongue and tong end. 3. 三吐 TTK 其实双吐掌握以后,三吐便水到渠成。三吐比双吐更易掌握,三吐音技巧一般用于前十六或后十六音符,也叫前三吐和后三吐,如:3(T) 3(T)3(K) 2(T)2(K) 2(T), 在葫芦丝、巴乌演奏中,应用较广。 TTK skill use pre-sixteen note and back-sixteen note usually, also be called pre-three T and back three T, such as 3(T) 3(T)3(K) 2(T)2(K) 2(T), have been applied widely in the Hulusi and Bawu performance. 注意:Note: 1. 目前好多乐谱中的吐音没有标明符号,因此演奏者根据老师的指导来采用。 Nowadays, some music book have no marks , to study under the teacher’s direction is much better. 2. 舌头的动作要灵活,不要过分紧张,做到干净有力。 Tongue action should be flexible and don’t too tense up and perform clear and strong. 3. 在练习双吐或三吐时应加强“苦”的练习。 Strengthen exercise of “ku” when TK and TTK exercise. Page 142 第八单元 基本功强化练习 the consolidation exercise of basic skill 葫芦丝、巴乌的基本功练习主要是三方面的练习,即:气息练习、手指练习、舌头练习。要想演奏好葫芦丝、巴乌,这三方面的练习缺一不可,故所谓的基本功练习也就是气、指、舌的练习,为了满足广大学习者的需求,在前面已经有练习曲的基础上,再增加加一些有一定难度的练习曲,以便提高大家的演奏水平,使葫芦丝、巴乌的演奏更加到位,一些高那度的乐曲可以迎刃而解。 The main basic skill of Hulusi and Bawu is breath control, fingering and tongue application. They are indispensable. Student should take more time to exercise. 一、 手指强化练习 the consolidation exercise of fingering 手指的基本功练习,主要训练大家的速度,能完成速度较快的节奏,其次还要训练大家双手的配合以及大家双手配合以及大度音程的演奏,最后还要训练薄弱指头,让每个指头能灵活自如。 The basic skill of fingering mainly indicates speed can keep up with the rhythm and educate cooperation of hand and all note. Finally, the fingers action should be flexible. Page 149 二、气息强化练习 Breath Consolidating Exercise 在葫芦丝、巴乌的演奏中,气息的运用和调整困扰着很多演奏者,存在的主要问题是憋气这一难题。由于葫芦丝的耗气量很小,特别是小葫芦丝尤为突出,有时一个乐句的演奏,吸入的气没用完,演奏下一乐句又吸气,这样以来,体内的余气很多,影响了正常的呼吸换气,整个机体处于紧张状态,音色变得紧张,恨不得马上完成乐句演奏,这样以来,对身体健康又一定影响,但如果掌握耗气息运用,科学用气,对身体是有益的,那么,怎样才能做到气息顺畅,演奏自如,记住一点:当换气时如果余气太多,先把余气释放,再吸气。但这个技巧要用得恰到好处。 The breath application and adjustment of Hulusi and Bawu is very difficult for executant, in which the first problem is breath keeping. Since Hulusi has the character of low air expending, especially for the small Hulusi, the problem that the executant take next inspiration before the inspired air be used up will happen. So that, the surplus air is too more and affect the normal air changing, the total system and tamber is too tight with the result that to complete performance in a hurry. It will be not good for health. From the above mentioned we can see that mastering breath application is very useful for healthy. Please keep in your mind that to release surplus air before next air taking.
一天到晚游泳的鱼

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中英文对比教材哈!方便了外国朋友!顶一个!

宠辱不惊,看庭前花开花落; 去留无意,望天空云卷云舒。

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好寡汉,你可给葫芦丝挣了脸,坚决顶

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搜索其他东东时偶然看到的,就顺手转过来了。

可惜这个版总没有人气啊。或许偶尔有外国朋友光临但总潜水。

道路是漫长的....

一天到晚游泳的鱼

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以下是引用寡汉在2006-4-25 21:07:23的发言:

搜索其他东东时偶然看到的,就顺手转过来了。

可惜这个版总没有人气啊。或许偶尔有外国朋友光临但总潜水。

道路是漫长的....

呵呵呵这羊倒是牵得好啊!

不是没人气,估计是看了都不晓得咋回?回英文吧,像俺英语这么烂的肯定不行,回中文吧,不对题哎!晕死!干脆就不回了!即使有人回了英文俺看着也太辛苦了呵呵呵!

宠辱不惊,看庭前花开花落; 去留无意,望天空云卷云舒。

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我直接自己跳井-----扑通

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good job

------------------------------------------------- 是命是运也,缓缓而行; 为名为利乎,坐坐再走。

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FIGHTING!!!
问世间"钱"为何物,直教俺垂涎三尺

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